By C. Innostian. Jones College.
Each lung extends from the diaphragm to a point Although the right and left lungs are basically similar buy zenegra 100 mg online, they just above the clavicle, and its surfaces are bordered by the ribs to are not identical. The left lung is subdivided into a superior which is the area between the lungs. All structures of the respira- lobe and an inferior lobe by a single fissure. The right lung is tory system beyond the principal bronchi, including the bronchial subdivided by two fissures into three lobes: superior, middle, and tree and the pulmonary alveoli, are contained within the lungs. Each lobe of the Each lung has four surfaces that match the contour of the lung is divided into many small lobules, which in turn contain thoracic cavity. Lobular divisions of the lungs make up slightly concave and contains a vertical slit, the hilum through specific bronchial segments. Respiratory System © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 17 Respiratory System 615 Apex of lung Apex of lung Superior lobe Superior lobe Oblique fissure Bronchus Pulmonary artery Bronchus Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein Pulmonary veins Middle lobe Inferior lobe Inferior lobe Cardiac impression Oblique fissure Aortic impression Pulmonary ligament Diaphragmatic surface Diaphragmatic surface FIGURE 17. The pleural cavity (intrapleural space) between the two right lung contains 10 bronchial segments and the left lung con- moistened membranes contains only a thin layer of fluid secreted tains 8 (fig. The pleural cavity in a healthy, living person is thus potential rather than real; it can become real only The lungs of a newborn are pink but may become discolored in an adult as a result of smoking or air pollution. Smoking not in abnormal situations when air enters the intrapleural space. Be- only discolors the lungs, it may also cause deterioration of the pul- cause the lungs normally remain in contact with the thoracic monary alveoli. This compartmentalization has protective value in that infections are usually confined to one compartment. The visceral example, pleurisy, an inflamed pleura, is generally confined to pleura adheres to the outer surface of the lung and extends into one side; and a penetrating injury to the thoracic cavity, such as each of the interlobar fissures. The parietalpleura lines the tho- a knife wound, may cause one lung to collapse but not the other.
Materials buy 100mg zenegra amex, for example, cement fragments, may very rarely become postopera- It is common to see heterotopic new bone formation, as tively interposed, sometime after closed reduction of a it occurs in about 15-50% of hip replacements. The risk is greater in patients who had infection, trauma, previous Failure of Union at Trochanteric Osteotomy/Abductor hip surgery, ankylosing spondylitis or paralysis prior to Tendon Re-implantation surgery. The extent of ossification reflects the type of os- teoarthritis (OA) preoperatively, with more occurring in In order to gain access to the hip joint, some surgical ap- patients with hypertrophic OA (15/43) than in those with proaches require reflection of the abductor muscles, with atrophic (9/43) OA. Heterotopic ossification may be or without a part of the greater trochanter. Failure of re- classified by the Brooker score, from minor foci to com- implantation results in poor gait and abductor weakness. Various forms of therapy may be em- Patients with poor muscle tone or general debility are at ployed in patients who exhibit excessive new bone for- greatest risk. MRI may be used to confirm the abnormal mation, including radiotherapy and bone-inhibiting anatomy. More rarely, failure of abduction may be due to an ab- ductor neuropathy. Cement Extrusion Fractures, Non-union and Wear Although relatively common, for example, around the ac- etabular cup, this is usually asymptomatic and thought to The insertion of rigid metallic implants focuses loading be unimportant. Occasionally, cement injected under of the skeleton at specific points, for example, the tip of pressure may travel into veins, such as branches of the the femoral stem, rather than loading a longer area of profunda femoris, but this is not considered dangerous. Hence, stress risers occur at these sites and may be Rarely, cement extrusion causes nerve, vessel, bowel or considered a normal, perhaps ‘usual’, finding. The Radiology of Hip and Knee Joint Prostheses 111 Associated Malignant Tumors? Hartford JM, Kwolek C, Circle B (2002) Popliteal pseudoa- neurysm after total knee arthroplasty: MRI of the vascular anatomy. Orthopedics 25:187-189 Publications have linked the finding of a malignant tumor 13.
These tests also help to determine the advisability of caused by environmental factors during morphogenic develop- an abortion safe 100 mg zenegra. Monozygotic twinning but were found harmful and have been replaced by other meth- is usually initiated toward the end of the first week when the em- ods of evaluation that are safer and more informative. Developmental © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development Anatomy, Postnatal Companies, 2001 Growth, and Inheritance Chapter 22 Developmental Anatomy, Postnatal Growth, and Inheritance 787 Two Two chorions amnions Implantation of blastocysts Two Two-cell Blastocysts zygotes stage Separate chorionic sacs Separate placentas (a) Two chorions Two fused amnions (b) Fused placentas Fused chorionic sacs (c) FIGURE 22. Twins of this type are fraternal rather than identical and may have (a) separate or (b) fused placentas. Ultrasonic imaging is a reliable way to determine scan the uterus with pulsed sound waves to locate fetal structures, pregnancy as early as 6 weeks after ovulation. Skin samples are taken from to determine fetal weight, length, and position, as well as to diag- the head of the fetus and blood samples extracted from the pla- nose multiple fetuses. The principal advantage of fetoscopy is that external fea- Amniocentesis is a technique used to obtain a small sam- tures of the fetus (such as fingers, eyes, ears, mouth, and genitals) ple of amniotic fluid so that it can be assessed genetically and can be carefully observed. A wide-bore needle is inserted several diseases, including hemophilia, thalassemia, and sickle- into the amniotic sac with guidance by ultrasound, and 5–10 ml cell anemia cases, 40% of which are missed by amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is Most hospitals are now equipped with instruments that most often performed to determine fetal maturity, but it can also monitor fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor. Developmental © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development Anatomy, Postnatal Companies, 2001 Growth, and Inheritance 788 Unit 7 Reproduction and Development One placenta One chorionic sac Two amniotic sacs Implantation of blastocyst Two-cell Blastocyst with two Zygote stage embryoblasts (a) Single placenta (b) Anastomosis of placental vessels FIGURE 22. Such twins have two amnions but only one chorion, and they share a common placenta. Amniotic fluid Placenta Syringe Endoscope (guided withdraws to exact location by Left cerebral blood pulsed sound waves) hemisphere Orbit of eye Left hand Uterine wall Thorax FIGURE 22. Placenta Fiber optics Needle punctures fetal vein on placenta FIGURE 22. Developmental © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Development Anatomy, Postnatal Companies, 2001 Growth, and Inheritance Chapter 22 Developmental Anatomy, Postnatal Growth, and Inheritance 789 Fetal monitor Amplifier Cardiotachometer Fetal heart rate Uterine Amplifier activity Pressure transducer FIGURE 22.
This reaction is important because ammonia ester is used directly in the formation of the -amino group and constitutes a mechanism for shunting nitrogen from waste- ful urea-forming products cheap 100mg zenegra free shipping. Glutamic acid can be used in the amination of other -keto acids to form the corresponding Retinol/RBP amino acids. It can also be converted to glutamine by cou- complex Chylomicron remnant pling with ammonia, a reaction catalyzed by glutamine containing retinyl ester synthetase. After urea, glutamine is the second most im- Chylo- portant metabolite of ammonia in the liver. It plays an im- micron Lipoprotein lipase portant role in the storage and transport of ammonia in the blood. Through the action of various transaminases, gluta- The metabolism of vitamin A (retinol) by mine can be used to aminate various keto acids to their cor- FIGURE 28. It also acts as an important oxida- tive substrate, and in the small intestine it is the primary substrate for providing energy. Retinol (an alcohol) is transported in chylomicrons mainly as an ester of long-chain fatty acids (see Chapter 27). When chylomicrons enter the circula- THE LIVER AS A STORAGE ORGAN tion, the triglyceride is rapidly acted on by lipoprotein li- pase; the triglyceride content of the particles is signifi- Another important role of the liver is the storage and me- cantly reduced, while the retinyl ester content remains tabolism of fat-soluble vitamins and iron. Receptors in the liver mediate the rapid uptake ble vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, are also stored in the of chylomicron remnants, which are degraded, and the liver. These stored vitamins are released into the circulation retinyl ester is stored. When the vitamin A level in blood falls, the liver mobi- lizes the vitamin A store by hydrolyzing the retinyl ester The Liver Has a Central Role in (see Fig. The retinol formed is bound with retinol- Regulating Coagulation binding protein (RBP), which is synthesized by the liver before it is secreted into the blood. The amount of RBP se- Liver cells are important both in the production and the creted into the blood is dependent on vitamin A status. Most of the known clot- tamin A deficiency significantly inhibits the release of RBP, ting factors and inhibitors are secreted by hepatocytes, whereas vitamin A loading stimulates its release. In addition, several coagulation Hypervitaminosis A develops when massive quantities and anticoagulation proteins require a vitamin K–depend- of vitamin A are consumed.