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This hypothesis has also been supported by studies of twins reared by normal and overweight parents 300mg gemfibrozil with amex cholesterol medication being recalled. Physical Factors: Overeating and/or obesity has also been associated with lesions in the appetite and satiety centers of the hypothalamus, hypothyroidism, decreased insulin production in diabetes mellitus, and increased cortisone production in Cushing’s disease. Lifestyle Factors: On a more basic level, obesity can be viewed as the ingestion of a greater number of calories than are expended. Weight gain occurs when caloric in- take exceeds caloric output in terms of basal metabolism and physical activity. Psychoanalytical Theory: This theory suggests that obe- sity is the result of unresolved dependency needs, with the individual being fixed in the oral stage of psychosex- ual development. The symptoms of obesity are viewed as depressive equivalents, attempts to regain “lost” or frus- trated nurturance and care. Common Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions for Anorexia and Bulimia (Interventions are applicable to various health-care settings, such as inpatient and partial hospitalization, community outpatient clinic, home health, and private practice. Possible Etiologies (“related to”) [Refusal to eat] [Ingestion of large amounts of food, followed by self-induced vomiting] [Abuse of laxatives, diuretics, and/or diet pills] [Physical exertion in excess of energy produced through caloric intake] Defining Characteristics (“evidenced by”) [Loss of 15% of expected body weight (anorexia nervosa)] Pale mucous membranes Poor muscle tone Excessive loss of hair [or increased growth of hair on body (lanugo)] [Amenorrhea] [Poor skin turgor] [Electrolyte imbalances] [Hypothermia] [Bradycardia] [Hypotension] [Cardiac irregularities] [Edema] Eating Disorders ● 223 Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will gain lbs per week (amount to be established by client, nurse, and dietitian). Long-term Goal By discharge from treatment, client will exhibit no signs or symptoms of malnutrition. If client is unable or unwilling to maintain adequate oral in- take, physician may order a liquid diet to be administered via nasogastric tube. Nursing care of the individual receiving tube feedings should be administered according to established hospital procedures. The client’s physical safety is a nursing priority, and without adequate nutrition, a life-threatening situation exists. In collaboration with dietitian, determine number of cal- ories required to provide adequate nutrition and realistic (according to body structure and height) weight gain. Explain to client details of behavior modification program as outlined by physician.

For example 300mg gemfibrozil visa cholesterol ranges hdl, an action step for the perfectionistic life-lens tests out the assumption that you must never make mistakes. The test is an experiment in which you intentionally make small mistakes and see what happens. To help you devise your own action steps, Worksheet 7-20 contains some examples for each problematic life-lens. Abandonment-fearful: Intimacy-avoidant: I will resist checking on my loved I will reveal more about myself and ones so often. I will quit asking for reassurance I will join a social organization and work that my husband loves me. Inadequate: Perfectionistic: I will join Toastmasters and learn I will wear two different-colored socks to give public speeches. I will volunteer to lead a project I will try to make as many trivial mistakes at work. Guilty and blameworthy: Guiltless: When I feel guilty about I will work hard to find something to something, I’ll ask a trusted friend apologize for at least once a week. When I feel at fault, I will make a list of all the possible causes for the problem. Vulnerable: Invulnerable: I will do something I’m afraid of, I will volunteer at a hospital to see what such as fly in an airplane. Help-seeking: Help-avoidant: I will do a project on my own I will ask someone for help on something without asking for help. I will help someone else without I will start asking for directions when them asking me to.

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In cases where vomiting is contraindicated gemfibrozil 300 mg with mastercard cholesterol lowering food pyramid, the patient should be adminis- tered activated charcoal, which is available in tablets, capsules, or suspension. Charcoal absorbs (detoxifies) ingested toxic substances, irritants, and intestinal gas. In cases where vomiting is desired, use one of two ways to expel a toxin: The nonpharmacological treatment is to induce vomiting by stimulating the gag reflex by placing a finger or a toothbrush in the back of the patient’s throat. Ipecac, available over the counter, should be purchased as a syrup—not a fluid extract. Ipecac should be taken with at least eight or more ounces of water or juice (do not use milk or carbonated beverages). Diarrhea can be mild (lasting one bowel movement) or severe (lasting several bowel movements). Intestinal fluids are rich in water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate, and diarrhea can cause minor or severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. Severe diarrhea can be life threatening in young, elderly, and debilitated patients. Diarrhea can be treated with a combination of medications and nonpharmacological measures such as clear liquids and oral solutions—Gatorade, Pedialyte, or Ricolyte—and intravenous electrolyte solutions. For example, traveler’s diarrhea also known as Montezuma’s Revenge is an acute condition usually caused by E. A patient experiencing traveler’s diarrhea may be given fluoro- quinolone antibiotics and loperamide (Immodium) to slow peristalsis and decrease the frequency of the stools. Fluoroquinolone treats the underlying cause of diar- rhea and loperamide treats the diarrhea itself. Anti-diarrhea medications decrease the hypermotility (increased peristalsis) that stimulates frequent bowel movements. Antidiarrheals should not be used for longer than 2 days and should not be used if a fever is present. Examples are tincture of opium, paregoric (camphorated opium tincture), and codeine. Opiate-Related Agents Opiate-related agents are drugs that are synthetic compounds similar to opiates.

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Thus it seems that the conclusion that being with others increases performance cannot be entirely true gemfibrozil 300mg for sale cholesterol lowering food today tonight. The tendency to perform tasks more poorly or more slowly in the presence of others is known as social inhibition. According to Zajonc, when we are with others we experience more arousal than we do when we are alone, and this arousal increases the likelihood that we will perform thedominant response, the action that we are most likely to emit in any given situation (Figure 14. Zajonc argued that when the task to be performed was relatively easy, or if the individual had learned to perform the task very well (a task such as pedaling a bicycle), the dominant response was likely to be the correct response, and the increase in arousal caused by the presence of others would create social facilitation. On the other hand, when the task was difficult or not well learned (a task such as Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. A meta-analysis by [4] Bond and Titus (1983), which looked at the results of over 200 studies using over 20,000 research participants, found that the presence of others significantly increased the rate of performing on simple tasks, and also decreased both rate and quality of performance on complex tasks. Although the arousal model proposed by Zajonc is perhaps the most elegant, other explanations have also been proposed to account for social facilitation and social inhibition. One modification argues that we are particularly influenced by others when we perceive that the others are [5] evaluating us or competing with us (Baron, 1986). In one study supporting this idea, Strube, [6] Miles, and Finch (1981) found that the presence of spectators increased joggers‘ speed only when the spectators were facing the joggers, so that the spectators could see the joggers and assess their performance. The presence of others did not influence joggers‘ performance when the joggers were facing in the other direction and thus could not see them. Working Together in Groups The ability of a group to perform well is determined by the characteristics of the group members (e. When the outcome of group performance is better than we would expect given the individuals who form the group, we call the outcome a group process gain, and when the group outcome is worse than we would have expected given the individuals who form the group, we call the outcome a group process loss. One group process loss that may occur in groups is that the group members may engage in social loafing, a group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In one of the earliest social psychology experiments, [7] Ringelmann (1913; reported in Kravitz & Martin, 1986) had individual men, as well as groups of various numbers of men, pull as hard as they could on ropes while he measured the maximum amount that they were able to pull. In fact, the loss was so large that groups of three men pulled at only 85% of their expected capability, whereas groups of eight pulled at only 37% of their expected capability. This type of process loss, in which group productivity decreases as the size of the group increases, has been found to occur on a wide variety of tasks.