When the lines of resistance example of grief or loss (psychological state) cheap 2.5 mg nebivolol visa prehypertension is bullshit, which are ineffective, energy depletion and death occur may inactivate, decrease, initiate, or increase spir- (Neuman, 1995). Neuman believes Basic Structure that spiritual variable considerations are necessary The basic structure at the central core structure for a truly holistic perspective and for a truly caring consists of factors that are common to all organisms. Neuman offered the following examples of basic Fulton (1995) has studied the spiritual variable survival factors: temperature range, genetic struc- in depth. She elaborated on research studies that ture, response pattern, organ strength or weakness, extend our understanding of the following aspects ego structure, and commonalities (Neuman, 1995). She suggested Five Client Variables that spiritual needs include (1) the need for mean- Neuman has identiﬁed ﬁve variables that are con- ing and purpose in life; (2) the need to receive love tained in all client systems: physiological, psycho- and give love; (3) the need for hope and creativity; logical, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual. The second concept identiﬁed by Neuman is the Psychological refers to mental processes and rela- environment. Developmental refers to life-developmental Neuman has identiﬁed and deﬁned the following processes. Neuman elaborated on the spiritual variable in External environment—inter- and extrapersonal in order to assist readers in understanding that the nature. Examples of trates all other client system variables and supports intrapersonal forces are presented for each variable. The client-client sys- tem can have a complete unawareness of the Physiological variable—degree of mobility, range of spiritual variable’s presence and potential, deny its body function. These factors include the relationships and resources Health is the third concept in Neuman’s model. Extrapersonal fac- Neuman believes that wellness and illness are on tors include education, ﬁnances, employment, and opposite ends of the continuum and that health is other resources (Neuman, 1995). Wellness Neuman (1995) has identiﬁed a third environ- exists when more energy is built and stored than ment as the “created environment. Neuman cluding the basic structure of energy factors toward views health as a manifestation of living energy system integration, stability, and integrity to create available to preserve and enhance system integrity. This safe, created environment Health is seen as varying levels within a normal offers a protective coping shield that helps the range, rising and falling throughout the life span.
In terms of the nature-nurture debate discount nebivolol 5mg with amex heart attack 40, the behaviorists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments. They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviors are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are a lot like puppets in a show who don‘t realize that other people are controlling them. Furthermore, although we do not cause our own actions, we nevertheless believe that we do because we don‘t realize all the influences acting on our behavior. Recent research in psychology has suggested that Skinner and the behaviorists might well have been right, at least in the sense that we overestimate our own free will in responding to the events around us (Libet, 1985; Matsuhashi &  Hallett, 2008; Wegner, 2002). The participants were asked, whenever they decided to, to press either of two buttons. Then they were asked to indicate which letter was showing on the screen when they decided to press the button. The researchers analyzed the brain images to see if they could predict which of the two buttons the participant was going to press, even before the letter at which he or she had indicated the decision to press a button. Suggesting that the intention to act occurred in the brain before the research participants became aware of it, the researchers found that the prefrontal cortex region of the brain showed activation that could be used to predict the button press as long as 10 seconds before the participants said that they decided which button to press. Research has found that we are more likely to think that we control our behavior when the desire to act occurs immediately prior to the outcome, when the thought is consistent with the outcome, and when there are no other  apparent causes for the behavior. Aarts, Custers, and Wegner (2005) asked their research participants to control a rapidly moving square along with a computer that was also controlling the square independently. When participants were exposed to words related to the location of the square just before they stopped its movement, they became more likely to think that they controlled the motion, even when it  was actually the computer that stopped it. And Dijksterhuis, Preston, Wegner, and Aarts (2008) found that Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Because we normally expect that our behaviors will be met with success, when we are successful we easily believe that the success is the result of our own free will. When an action is met with failure, on the other hand, we are less likely to perceive this outcome as the result of our free will, and we are more likely to  blame the outcome on luck or our teacher (Wegner, 2003). The behaviorists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning.
After the procedure buy 5 mg nebivolol mastercard hypertension 200120, take vital signs and blood pressure every 15 minutes for the ﬁrst hour. Highest level of education achieved Occupation Presenting Problem Has this problem ever occurred before? Describe the family living arrangements Who is the major decision maker in the family? Describe client’s/family members’ roles within the family Describe religious beliefs and practices Are there any religious requirements or restrictions that place limitations on the client’s care? Describe client’s usual emotional/behavioral response to: Anxiety Anger Loss/change/failure Pain Fear Describe any topics that are particularly sensitive or that the client is unwilling to discuss (because of cultural taboos) Describe any activities in which the client is unwilling to par- ticipate (because of cultural customs or taboos) What are the client’s personal feelings regarding touch? Examples include: problems related to primary support group, social environment, education, occupation, housing, economics, access to health care services, interaction with the legal system or crime, and other types of psychosocial and environmental problems. This scale represents in global terms a single measure of the individual’s psychological, social, and occupational function- ing. Source: From the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, 2000. Example of a psychiatric diagnosis using the Multiaxial Evaluation System: Axis I 300. Do not include impairment in functioning due to physical (or environ- mental) limitations. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The mental status examination is a description of all the areas of the client’s mental functioning. The following are the compo- nents that are considered critical in the assessment of a client’s mental status. The outward emotional expression is what would be expected in a certain situation (e. Verbalizations are lengthy and tedious, and because of numerous details, are delayed reaching the intended point 4. The individual is making up nonsensical-sounding words, which only have meaning to him or her 6.
One question that is exceedingly important for the study of personality concerns the extent to which it is the result of nature or nurture generic 2.5 mg nebivolol overnight delivery blood pressure medication omeprazole. If nature is more important, then our personalities will form early in our lives and will be difficult to change later. If nurture is more important, however, then our experiences are likely to be particularly important, and we may be able to flexibly alter our personalities over time. In this section we will see that the personality traits of humans and animals are determined in large part by their genetic makeup, and thus it is no surprise that identical twins Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein turned out to be very similar even though they had been raised separately. A gene is the basic biological unit that transmits characteristics from one generation to the next. These common genetic structures lead members of the same species to be born with a variety of behaviors that come naturally to them and that define the characteristics of the species. These abilities and characteristics are known as instincts—complex inborn patterns  of behaviors that help ensure survival and reproduction(Tinbergen, 1951). Birds naturally build nests, dogs are naturally loyal to their human caretakers, and humans instinctively learn to walk and to speak and understand language. Rabbits are naturally fearful, but some are more fearful than others; some dogs are more loyal than others to their caretakers; and some humans learn to speak and write better than others do. Personality is not determined by any single gene, but rather by the actions of many genes working together. Furthermore, even working together, genes are not so powerful that they can control or create our personality. Some genes tend to increase a given characteristic and others work to decrease that same characteristic—the complex relationship among the various genes, as well as a variety of random factors, produces the final outcome. Furthermore, genetic factors always work with environmental factors to create personality. Having a given pattern of genes doesn‘t necessarily mean that a particular trait will develop, because some traits might occur only in some environments. For example, a person may have a genetic variant that is known to increase his or her risk for developing emphysema from smoking.